Dr. Ayyappan Rajasekaran a.k.a. (Raj Rajasekaran) is an internationally renowned cancer researcher. He completed his PhD from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. His post-doctoral training in basic cancer cell biology was at the cell biology departments of New York University Medical Center and the Weill Medical College of Cornell University. He was a junior faculty in the department of Cell Biology and the Director of the 3D (confocal) microscopy facility at Cornell University. At the University of California, Los Angeles he made many basic cancer discoveries. He was the founding director of the Cancer Center at the Alfred I DuPont Hospital for children, Wilmington, Delaware.  His other academic appointments include Professor of Pediatrics, Thomas Jefferson University, Adjunct Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Senior Research Scientist at Helen F Graham Cancer Center, and Adjunct Professor, Lankenau Institute of Medical Research.    In 2013, he founded Therapy Architects, LLC to bring his discoveries to the bedside in the clinic.

Teaching: Dr. Rajasekaran has been an educator for the past 25 years. He taught basic cell biology and cancer biology to PhD graduate and medical students at Cornell and UCLA. He was the program director for PhD graduate students in the department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at UCLA and has won many awards for his excellence in teaching. His philosophy of teaching is to provide students with a strong foundation and nurture their creative thinking capacity.  Hundreds of students have benefitted from the critical thinking process reinforced by Dr. Rajasekaran. He simplifies complex biological processes so that a lay person can easily comprehend. He has given biology lectures at elementary schools, colleges, universities and in large national and international cancer research symposia. He strongly believes that childhood education on cancer will help them take preventive measures now and better deal with the disease in their future.  To promote childhood cancer education he started a Global Cancer Biology Education program which provides free lectures on cancer to middle and high school students globally.

Research: Dr. Rajasekaran has 25 years of experience in cancer research. His group focuses on basic mechanisms involved in normal cell transformation into cancer, cancer biomarkers, drug discovery and nanoparticle mediated drug delivery. He has published more than 80 peer reviewed research articles.  Six of his publications were highlighted as journal cover articles. Cancer is a multistep process in which normal cells accumulate genetic and epigenetic changes to become a cancerous cell which then has the potential to multiply and produce a tumor mass.  During this development cancer cells also acquire the ability to move to distant organs, a process known as metastasis which is the cause of most of the cancer deaths.  

Dr. Rajasekarans’ research focused on this process and has identified biomarkers that are involved in the transformation of normal cell into a metastatic cancer cell. The biomarkers extensively characterized in his laboratory are sodium pump beta-subunit, prostate specific membrane antigen, soluble form of E-cadherin and Wilms tumor protein. These biomarkers are key targets for drug development which is the current focus of his research interest. His group also discovered gramicidin (an antibiotic) as a potential drug to for the treatment of kidney cancer. In addition, his group pioneered nanoparticle-mediated targeted drug delivery to mitigate side-effects of chemotherapy in children with leukemia.  


B.S. in Botany, Chemistry, Zoology
University of Madras, Madras, India
M.S. in Botany
University of Madras, Madras, India
Ph.D. in Biochemistry
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India
The Executive Program in Management
UCLA Anderson School of Management


Academic Appointments
1994 – 1997
Instructor, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy
Weill Medical College of Cornell University
New York, NY 10021

1997 – 2004
Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
Los Angeles, CA 90095

2003 – 2007
Director, Cellular and Molecular Pathology Graduate Program
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
Los Angeles, CA 90095

2004 – 2006
Associate Professor (Step I)
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UCLA
Los Angeles, CA 90095

2006 – 2007
Associate Professor (Step III, Accelerated Promotion)
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UCLA
Los Angeles, CA 90095

2007 – 2012
Director, Nemours Center for Childhood Cancer Research
A. I. duPont Hospital for Children
Wilmington, DE 19803

2012 - 2013
Director, Basic Research Program
A.I. duPont Hospital for Children
Wilmington, DE   19803

2007 – Present
Affiliated Scientist, Department of Biological Sciences
University of Delaware
Newark, DE 19716

2008 – Present
Professor, Department of Pediatrics
Thomas Jefferson University
Philadelphia, PA 19107

2008 – Present
Adjunct Professor, Department of Material Science & Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, DE  19716

2012 – Present
Senior Research Scientist
Helen F. Graham Cancer Center
Newark, DE   19713

 2013 - Present            Founder and President
                                    Therapy Architects, LLC                                                                                                                        Wilmington, Delaware

Selected Awards and Honors
B.S. (with honors, National Merit Scholarship)
M.S. (with honors, National Merit Scholarship)
1983 – 1988
Indian Institute of Science Fellowship
1994 – 1996
Toohey Foundation Award
1997 – 1998
Academic Senate Award, UCLA
Academic Senate Award, UCLA
CaP CURE Award
BZL Biologics PSMA Research Recognition Award
Best Pathology Course Recognition Award from Graduate Students
Full Member, Molecular Biology Institute, UCLA
Elected Member, CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center, UCLA
Accelerated promotion to Associate Professor Step III
Elected Member, Delaware Cancer Consortium, Tobacco and Other Risk Factors Committee
Elected Member, Delaware Health Sciences Alliance Task Force
Elected Advisory Panel Member, American Cancer Society’s India Cancer Initiative
Advisory Group Member,  Supporting Kidds: Grief Awareness Coalition
Panel Member, Stronger Health Based Partnership Conference, Delaware Health Sciences Alliance
Panel Member, Delaware Health Sciences Alliance: Symposium on Clinical and Translational Science
Panel Member, Florida Department of Health, Center for Disease Control, University of West Florida and Nemours, collaboration on Florida Childhood Cancer Cluster, Tallahassee, FL
Delegate, representing Nemours for Congressional Delegation Meeting National EPSCoR/IDeA Coalition and Foundation, Washington DC.
Delaware Bioscience Winterfest Research Award, Newark, DE
Press Releases and Other Recognitions
Na,K-ATPase beta-subunit as a motility suppressor: paper published in Molecular Biology of the Cell recognized as Editors Choice in the Science SKTE (AAAS Online journal)

Role of Na,K-ATPase in epithelial cells and cancer: Recognized as a New Development Cancer Research highlighted in the Science SKTE Commentary Article

New approach to PSMA Based Immunotherapy: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics paper recognized by UCLA press release, National Broadcast Radio, KCAL9 TV news, commentary article in Drug Discovery Today, and as Research Highlights in the Department of Defense website. 

A.I. duPont launches cancer effort:  UCLA researchers are tapped to lead new Nemours Center for Childhood Cancer Research, Nemours press release, Wilmington News Journal, April 14, 2007

New function of PSMA in induction of Aneuploidy: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics paper recognized by Nemours press release, National Broadcast Radio, PBS TV news, commentary article in Delaware News Journal and as Research Highlights in the Department of Defense prostate cancer program website.

Nemours find may help treat cancer of prostate. Article in Wilmington News Journal, July 17, 2008

Nemours Center for Childhood Cancer Research receives over $1 million in grants for Center Research in 2008. PRWeb press release, January 8, 2009

Childhood cancer: on the front lines. Article in The Philadelphia Inquirer, April 23, 2009

Beta protein of sodium pump plays role in heart. Nemours press release, November 18, 2009

An indicator of cancer risk?  Interview on radio station WDEL, featured on Health Watch segment, November 20, 2009

Personalized Medicine, From genetic tests to tailored care: Article in Wilmington News Journal, June 1, 2010.

The Kaylyn Elaine Warren Foundation Fight for the Gold Ribbon Kids Main Event at Frawley Stadium, ceremonial first pitch


Nanotechnology for Pediatric Leukemia Treatment,
Nemours and University of Delaware press release, December, 2012

Delaware On-Line News Journal article

Highlighted in 50+ health-related web sites, Science Monitor, Science
Daily and Hematology Times

Nanotechnology research recognized by:

Best proffered preclinical research paper:  American Association for Cancer Research - Gerald B. Grindey Memorial Scholar-in-Training Award

Graduate student award: International Student Research Presentation Contest, International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.

Graduate student award - Regional Student Research Presentation Contest, International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering Delaware Valley Chapter Event, Philadelphia.

Nanotechnology to mitigate side effects of cancer treatment in children, University of Delaware Press Release

Nanotechnology based drug delivery for children, Action 6 TV News

A cancer breakthrough finding regarding cancer cells poisoning normal cells to become cancerous, University of Delaware Press Release

How cancer cells infect normal cells, Delaware Source of Public Media, WDDE 91.1 Dover, DE source of NPR news,

2016                        Gene sequencing offers promising avenue for VP Biden’s moonshot
to cure Cancer, Delaware Source of Public Media, WDDE 91.1
Dover, source of NPR news.

1.    Low pressure shear type cell homogenizer (1995) (U.S. Patent # 5,390,859). 
2.    Stably transfected cell selection plate (1995) (U.S. Patent # 5,411,872).
3.    DNA band isolation insert (1995) (U.S. Patent # 5,384,022).
4.    A novel endocytosing vehicle for drug and antibody delivery to prostate and other tissues (2010) (U.S. Patent # 7,776,548).
5.    Diagnostic and therapeutic potential of Na,K-ATPase beta-subunit in cancer (International and US Patents pending).
6.    Method to increase the efficiency of anti PSMA antibody for treatment of prostate cancer (patent pending).
7.    A novel PSMA based prostate cancer treatment (patent pending).
8.    A novel serum marker to assess activated oncogenic signaling in human cancers and inflammatory epithelial diseases (patent pending).
Conference Organization
Co-founded UCLA Cytoskeleton Club together with Drs. Frank Laski and Rachelle Crosbie
Co-organized UCLA cytoskeleton club symposium
Organized Nemours Center for Childhood Cancer Awareness and Education Symposium
Co-founded the Nemours Center for Childhood Cancer Research Translational Meeting Series together with Christopher Frantz, MD

National Review Boards
Ad Hoc Reviewer
National Science Foundation:

Cell Biology Panel and International Grants Review Panel
National Institute of Health:

Cellular and Molecular Biology of the Kidney Study Section
Department of Defense:

Prostate Cancer Research Program:  Cell Biology Study Section and Programmatic Review Panel Member
American Institute of Biological Sciences:

Industrial Prostate Cancer Research Program
South Plain Foundation, Texas:

Prostate Cancer Grants
Research Competitiveness Program at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

Washington's Life Sciences Discovery Fund (LSDF) Grants
Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix

Translational research grants
International Review Boards
Hadwen Trust UK

Dr. Hadwen Trust for Humane Research
United States – Israel Binational Science Foundation
National Cancer Institute

Special Review and Logistic Branch,
NCI Provocative Review Question Study Section Member
NCI Omnibus grants review study section member

Editorial Board

2010-2013     Cancer Research

      American Journal of Molecular Biology
      ISRN Journal of Nephrology
    2014-              Annals of Materials Science and Engineering
    2015-              Journal of kidney cancer and VHL


Journal of Clinical Investigation
Molecular Biology of the Cell
Journal of Cell Science
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
American Journal of Physiology (Renal)
Cancer Research
Clinical Cancer Research
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Experimental Cell Research
FASEB Journal
Journal of Clinical Pathology
Cell Biology International
Histology and Histopathology   
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
Molecular Cell Biology
Journal of Membrane Biology
British Journal of Oncology
Human Pathology
The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
International Journal of Cancer
Journal of Patent Analysis
Molecular Pharmaceutics
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
ACS Chemical Biology
Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy

Committee Service   
National Committees
2009 – 2012
Advisory Panel Member, American Cancer Society, India Cancer Initiative

State Committees
2008 – Present
Member, Delaware Cancer Consortium, Tobacco and Other 
Risk Factors Committee
2009 – 2013
Task Force Member, Delaware Health Sciences Alliance
2009 – 2013
Delaware Health Sciences Alliance pilot grants review committee
Center for Translational Research pilot grants section Co-investigator with Dr. Buchanan
Institutional Committees
2008 – 2012
Executive Committee, Nemours Center for Childhood Cancer Research (NCCCR), Wilmington, Delaware
2008 – Present
Steering Committee, Center for Translational Cancer Research, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center, Newark, Delaware
2009 – 2013
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, Nemours Biomedical Research, A. I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware
2009 – 2011
NCCCR/Mayo Clinic/American Cancer Society Symposium, Organization Committee
2010- 2013
Center for Pediatric Research Pilot Grants Review Committee

University:  UCLA
1998 – 2007
Dean's Cell Biology Focus Group
Bing Professorship Search Committee
2003 – 2007
UCLA Access Steering Committee
2003 – 2007
UCLA Access Student Admission Committee

Department of Laboratory and Medicine:  UCLA
1998 – 2007
Graduate Executive Committee
2000 – 2002
Basic Science Compensation Plan Committee
2000 – 2002
Academic Personnel Committee
2001 – 2002
Departmental Lunch Seminar Series Organizing Committee
2003 – 2007
Department Graduate Advisor
2003 – 2007
Department Research Committee
2006 – 2007
Pathology Seminar Series Organizing Committee

NYU Medical Center
1989 – 1992
Instructor, Cell and Molecular Biology Course (G16.2104)
Weill Medical College of Cornell University
1993 – 1997
Director, Institutional Confocal Microscopy Facility
1995 – 1996
Instructor, Histology Course
University of California, Los Angeles
1999 – 2005
Director, Departmental Confocal Microscopy Facility
1999 – 2007 
Cell Adhesion Molecules and Cancer, M297, UCLA Access Seminar Course (Course Director)
1999 – 2007
Lecturer, Molecular Basis of Disease, M237, Biology of Cancer and Metastasis
2000 – 2007
Lecturer, Cell Biology and Pathogenesis, M229, Membrane Polarization and Regulation
2002 – 2003
Course Director, Histology and Pathology for Graduate Students, M238 
Lecturer, Basic Concepts in Oncology, M294
2004 – 2007
Course Director, Cellular and Molecular Basis of Disease, M237
University of Delaware
2012 – 2014
Lecturer, BISC 675, Cardiovascular Physiology, Leukemia
Mentored more than 65 faculty, postdocortal fellows, graduate and under graduate students


Research Grants and Fellowships

Raised more than $5 million in grants and fellowships for research.

More than 100 national and international research presentations

Peer reviewed publications:

Research papers recognized as Journal covers and highlights:



Research papers:

Biomarker, sodium pump beta-subunit: Sodium pump is an ion channel protein that maintains sodium and potassium levels in cells. This is a key protein that regulates the function of various organs such as heart, brain, kidney, and many glandular organs. Sodium pump is composed of three subunits, alpha, beta and gamma. Dr. Rajasekarans’ research established that the beta subunit has cell-cell adhesion function that is lost in metastatic cancers. 

1.      Rajasekaran SA, Ball Jr WJ, Bander NH, Liu H, Pardee JD, Rajasekaran AK.  (1999). Reduced expression of beta-subunit of Na, K-ATPase in human clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. J Urol.  162: 574-580.

2.      Rajasekaran SA, Palmer LG, Quan K, Harper JF, Ball Jr WJ, Bander NH, Peralta-Soler A, Rajasekaran AK.  (2001)Na,K-ATPase beta-subunit is required for epithelial polarization, suppression of invasion, and cell motility.  Mol Biol Cell.  12: 279-295.

3.      Rajasekaran SA, Palmer LG, Moon SY, Peralta Soler A, Apodaca GL, Harper JF, Zheng Y, Rajasekaran AK.  (2001).  Na,K-ATPase activity is required for the formation of tight junctions, desmosomes, and induction of polarity in epithelial cells.  Mol Biol Cell.  12: 3717-3732.

4.      Espineda C, Seligson D, Ball Jr WJ, Rao JY, Palotie A, Horvath S, Huang Y, Shi T, Rajasekaran AK.  (2003).  Analysis of the Na,K-ATPase alpha- and beta-subunit expression profiles of the bladder cancer using tissue microarrays.  Cancer.  97:1859-1868.

5.      Rajasekaran SA, Hu J, Gopal J, Gallemore R, Ryazantsev S, Bok D, Rajasekaran AK.  (2003).  Na,K-ATPase inhibition alters tight junction structure and permeability in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.  Am J Physiol Cell Physiol.  284(6): C1497-1507.

6.      Rajasekaran AK, Gopal J, Rajasekaran SA.  (2003). Na,K-ATPase in the regulation of epithelial cell structure.  Ann NY Acad Sci.  986:649-651.

7.      Rajasekaran SA, Gopal J, Rajasekaran AK.  (2003).  Expression of Na,K-ATPase b-subunit in transformed MDCK cells increases the translation of the Na,K-ATPase alpha-subunit.  Ann NY Acad Sci.  986:652-654.

8.      Rajasekaran AK, Rajasekaran SA.  (2003). Role of Na,K-ATPase in the assembly of tight junctions.  Am J Renal Physiol.  285: F388-F396.

9.  Rajasekaran SA, Anilkumar G, Oshima E, Bowie JU, Liu H, Heston W, Bander N, Rajasekaran AK.  (2003). A novel cytoplasmic tail MXXXL motif mediates the internalization of prostate specific membrane antigen.  Mol Biol Cell.  14: 4835-4845.

10.   Espineda ES, Chang J, Twiss J, Rajasekaran SA, Rajasekaran AK.  (2004). Repression of Na,K-ATPase beta1-subunit by the transcription factor Snail in carcinoma.  Mol Biol Cell.  15:  1364-1373.
11.   Rajasekaran SA, Gopal J, Willis D, Espineda C, Twiss J, Rajasekaran AK.  (2004).  Na,K-ATPase beta1-subunit increases the translation efficiency of the a1-subunit in MSV-MDCK cells.   Mol Biol Cell.  15: 3224-3232.

12.   Christiansen JJ, Rajasekaran AK.  (2004). Biological impediments to antibody based cancer immunotherapy, invited review.  Mol Cancer Ther.  11: 1493-1501.

13.   Rajasekaran SA, Gopal J, Espineda C, Ryazantsev S, Schneeberger EE, Rajasekaran AK.   (2004). HPAF-II cells, a pancreatic cell model for studying epithelial polarity and junctional complexes.  Pancreas.  29: e77-e83.

14.   Kim G, Rajasekaran SA, Thomas G, Rosen E, Landaw E, Shintaku P, Lassman C, Said J, Rajasekaran AK.  (2005). Renal clear-cell carcinoma: an ultrastructural study on the junctional complexes.  Histol Histopathol.  20: 35-44.

15.   Barwe S, Anilkumar G, Moon S, Zheng Y, Whitelegge J, Rajasekaran SA, Rajasekaran AK.  (2005). Novel role for Na,K-ATPase in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and suppression of cell motility.  Mol Biol Cell.  16: 1082-1094. (Comment in Science STKE, 2005, Issue 273, pp. tw81, 1 March 2005).

16.   Rajasekaran SA, Barwe S, Rajasekaran AK.  (2005). Multiple functions of Na,K-ATPase. Sem Nephrol.  5: 328-334.

17.   Barwe SP, Rajasekaran SA, Rajasekaran AK.  (2006). Identification of protein kinase C as an intermediate in Na,K-ATPase beta-subunit mediated lamellipodia formation and suppression of cell motility in carcinoma cells.  Cell Mol Biol.  52: 41-47.

18.   Rajasekaran SA, Barwe SP, Gopal J, Ryazantsev S, Schneeberger EE, Rajasekaran AK. (2007).  Na,K-ATPase regulates tight junction permeability through occludin phosphorylation in pancreatic epithelial cells.  Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol.  292: G124-G133.

19.   Barwe SP, Kim S, Rajasekaran SA, Bowie J, Rajasekaran AK.  (2007). Janus model of the Na,K-ATPase beta-subunit transmembrane domain: distinct faces mediate alpha/beta assembly and beta-beta homo-oligomerization.  J Mol Biol.  365: 706-714.  PMCID:  PMC2459552.

20.   Seligson D, Rajasekaran SA, Yu H, Liu X, Eeva M, Tze S, Ball Jr. W, Horvath S, deKernion J, Rajasekaran AK.  (2008).  Na,K-adenosine triphosphatase alpha1-subunit predicts survival of renal clear cell carcinoma.  J Urol.  179: 338-345.

21.   Rajasekaran SA, Beyenbach KW, Rajasekaran AK.  (2008).  Interactions of tight junctions with membrane channels and transporters.  Biochim Biophys ACTA.  1778: 757-769.

22.   Inge LJ, Rajasekaran SA, Yoshimoto K, Mischel PS, McBride W, Landow E, Rajasekaran AK.  (2008).  Evidence for a potential tumor suppressor role for the Na,K-ATPase beta1-subunit.  Histol Histopathol.  23: 459-467.

23.   Rajasekaran SA, Rajasekaran AK.  (2009).  Na,K-ATPase and epithelial tight junctions. Front Biosci.  4: 2130-2148.

24.   Tummala R, Wolle D, Barwe SP, Sampson VB, Rajasekaran AK, Pendyala L.  (2009).   Expression of Na-K-ATPase-beta(1) subunit increases uptake and sensitizes carcinoma cells to oxaliplatin Cancer Chemother Pharmacol.  64: 187-194.  PMCID: PMC2728910. 

25.   Barwe SP, Jordan MC, Skay A, Inge L, Rajasekaran SA, Wolle D, Johnson CL, Neco P,  Fang K, Rozengurt N, Golhaber JI, Roos KP, Rajasekaran AK.  (2009).  Dysfunction of ouabain-induced cardiac contractility in mice with heart-specific ablation of Na,K-ATPase beta1-subunit.  J Mol Cell Cardiol.  47: 552-560.  PMCID: PMC2749246.

26.   Rajasekaran S, Huynh TP, Wolle D, Espineda C, Inge L, Skay A, Lassman C, Nicholas SB, Harper JF, Reeves AE, Ahmed MM, Leatherman JM, Mullin JM, Rajasekaran AK (2010).  Na,K-ATPase subunits as markers for epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer fibrosis Mol Cancer Ther.  9: 1515-1524.  PMCID: PMC2884047.

27.   Presson AP, Yoon NK, Bagryanova L, Mah V, Alavi M, Maresh EL, Rajasekaran AK, Goodglick L, Chia D, Horvath S (2011).  Protein expression based multimarker analysis of breast cancer samples.  BMC Cancer.  11: 230.  PMCID:  PMC3142534

28.   Huynh TP, Vei M, Ball Jr. WJ, Chia D, Fishbein MC, Horvath S, Wu DC, Harper J, Sarafian T, Dubinett SD, Sampson V, Langhans SA, Goodglick L, Rajasekaran AK (2012).  Na,K-ATPase is a target of cigarette smoke and reduced expression predicts poor patient outcome of smokers with lung cancer. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol, 302:1150-L1158.

29.   Barwe SP, Skay A, McSpadden R, Langhans SA, Huynh TP, Inge LJ, Rajasekaran AK (2013).  Na,K-ATPase beta-subunit cis homo-oligomerization is necessary for epithelial lumen formation in mammalian cells. J Cell Sci.125:5711-20.

30.   Selvakumar P, Owens TA, David JM, Petrelli NJ, Christiansen BC, Lakshmikuttyamma A, and Rajasekaran AK (2014). Epigenitic silencing of Na,K-ATPase beta1 subunit gene ATP1B1 by methylation in clear cell carcinoma. Epigenetics, 22;1-9.

31.   Huynh, TP, Barwe, SP, Lee SJ, McSpadden R, Franco OE, Hayward SW, Damoiseaux, R, Grubbs SS, Petrelli, NJ and Rajasekaran AK (2015).  Glucocorticoids suppress renal cell carcinoma progression by enhancing Na,K-ATPase beta-subunit expression. Plos One. 10, (4) e0122442.

Biomarker, prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA): PSMA is a biomarker present in high levels in metastatic prostate cancers. Dr. Rajasekaran’s group together with Dr. Neil Bander’s group from Weill Medical College of College of Cornell University established an antibody against this biomarker which has therapeutic and diagnostic value. They also showed that PSMA induces aneuploidy (multiple chromosomes), a key phenomenon involved in the development of drug resistance and metastasis in cancer cells.

32.   Liu H., Moy P, Kim S, Xia Y, Rajasekaran AK, Navarro V, Knudsen B, Bander N.  (1997).   Monoclonal antibodies to the extracellular domain of prostate specific membrane antigen also react with tumor vascular endothelium.  Cancer Res.  57: 3629-3634.

33.   Liu H*, Rajasekaran AK*, Moy P, Xia Y, Kim S, Navarro V, Rahmati R, Bander N.  (1998). Constitutive and antibody induced internalization of prostate specific membrane antigen. Cancer Res.  58: 4055-4060 (*shared authorship).

34.   Christiansen J, Rajasekaran SA, Moy P, Butch A, Goodglick L, Bander N, Reiter R, Gu Z, Rajasekaran AK.  (2003).  Polarity of prostate specific membrane antigen, prostate stem cell antigen, and prostate specific antigen in MDCK cells and in prostate tissue.  Prostate 55: 9-19.

35.   Anilkumar G, Rajasekaran SA, Wang S, Hankinson O, Bander N, Rajasekaran AK.  (2003).  Prostate specific membrane antigen association with filamin A modulates its internalization and NAALADase activity.  Cancer Res.  63:2645-2648.

36.   Rajasekaran AK, Anilkumar G, Christiansen JJ.  (2005).  Is prostate specific membrane antigen a multifunctional protein?  Am J Physiol Cell Physiol.  288: C975-C981.

37.   Christiansen JJ, Rajasekaran SA, Inge L, Chang L, Anilkumar G, Bander N, Rajasekaran AK.  (2005).  N-glycosylation and microtubule integrity are involved in apical targeting of prostate specific membrane antigen: implication for immunotherapy.  Mol Cancer Ther.  4: 704-714.  (Cover Article).

UCLA press release, National Broadcast Radio, KCAL9 TV news, comment in Drug Discovery Today, and as Research Highlights in the Department of Defense website.

38.   Anilkumar G., Barwe SP, Christiansen JJ, Rajasekaran SA, Kohn DB, Rajasekaran AK.   (2006). Association of prostate specific membrane antigen with caveolin-1 and its caveolae-dependent internalization in microvascular endothelial cells: implications for targeting to tumor vasculature.  Microvasc Res.  72: 54-61.

39.   Christiansen JJ, Rajasekaran AK.  (2006). Reassessing epithelial to mesenchymal transition as a prerequisite for carcinoma invasion and metastasis.  Cancer Res.  66: 8319-8326.

40.   Christiansen JJ, Weimbs T, Bander N, Rajasekaran AK.  (2006)Differing effects of microtubule depolymerizing and stabilizing chemotherapeutic agents in t-SNARE mediated apical targeting of Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen.  Mol Cancer Ther.  5: 2468-2473 (Cover Article).

41.   Barwe SP, Maul RS, Christiansen JJ, Anilkumar G, Cooper CR, Kohn DB, Rajasekaran AK.  (2007).  Preferential association of prostate cancer cells expressing prostate specific membrane antigen to bone marrow matrix.  Int J Oncol.  4: 899-904.

42.   Olson WC, Heston WD, Rajasekaran AK.  (2007).  Clinical trials of cancer therapies targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen.  Rev Recent Clin Trials.  2: 182-190.

43.   Goodman Jr OB, Barwe SP, Ritter B, McPherson PS, Vasko AJ, Keen JH, Nanus DM, Bander NH, Rajasekaran AK.  (2007). Interaction of prostate specific membrane antigen with clathrin and the adaptor protein complex-2.  Int J Oncol.  31: 1199-2003.

44.   Rajasekaran S, Christiansen JJ, Schmid I, Oshima E, Ryazantsev S, Sakamoto K, Weinstein J, Rao N, Rajasekaran AK.  (2008). Prostate specific membrane antigen associates with anaphase promoting complex and induces chromosomal instability.  Mol Cancer Ther.  7:  2142-2151.  PMCID:  PMC2548318.

Nemours press release, National Broadcast Radio, PBS TV news, comment Delaware News Journal and as Research High lights in the Department of Defense prostate cancer program website.

Biomarker, soluble E-cadherin (sE-cad): sE-cad is the extracellular fragment of the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. This fragment is observed in high levels in cancer patients’ sera. Dr. Rajasekaran’s group established that this fragment has the potential to convert a normal cell into a cancer cell.

45.   Inge LJ, Barwe SP, D’Ambrosio J, Gopal J, Lu K, Ryazantsev S, Rajasekaran SA, Rajasekaran AK (2011).  Soluble E-cadherin promotes cell survival by activating epidermal growth factor receptor.  Exp Cell Res.  317(6):838-848

46.   Reckamp K, Gardner B, Figlin R, Elashoff D, Krysan K, Dohadwala M, Mao J, Sharma S, Inge L, Rajasekaran AK, Dubinett S.  (2008). Tumor response to combination celecoxib and erlotinib therapy in NSCLC is associated with a low baseline matrix metalloproteinase-9 and a decline in serum soluble E-cadherin.  J Thorac Oncol.  3: 117-124.

47.   David J, Rajasekaran AK (2012).  Dishonorable discharge:  the oncogenic roles of cleaved e-cadherin fragments. Invited review, Cancer Res. 72 (12):2917-23.

48.    Patil PU, D'Ambrosio J, Inge L, Mason RW and Rajasekaran AK (2015). Carcinoma Cells Sequentially Induce Pre-neoplastic Lumen Filling and EMT in Epithelial Cells by soluble E-cadherin-Mediated Activation of EGFR. J cell Sci.128: 4366-79.

University of Delaware Press Release, Delaware WDDE news

Biomarker, Wilms’ tumor protein (WT1). Wilms’ tumor protein is a tumor suppressor expressed in pediatric kidney cancer and is expressed in high levels in many cancers.  Dr. Rajasekaran’s group established that this protein is involved in inducing metastatic phenotype in adult kidney cancer. 

49.   Sampson V, David J, Puig I, , Said JW, Garcia de Herreros A, Thomas GV,  Rajasekaran AK (2014).  Wilms‘ tumor portein induces an epithelial-mesenchymal hybrid differentiation state in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Plos One, 15;1-12.

Gramicidin (GA) as potential drug for kidney cancer:  GA is an old antibiotic used primarily in animals. This is a short peptide that forms a pore in the cell membrane and facilitates the transport of sodium ions into the cells. Dr. Rajasekaran’s group established that GA is potent drug candidate to treat aggressive and metastatic kidney cancer.

50. David JM, Owens TA, Barwe SP, Rajasekaran AK (2013). Gramicidin A induces metabolic dysfunction and energy depletion leading to cell death in Renal Cell carcinoma cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 12 (11):2296-307.

51. David JM, Owens TA, Inge LJ, Bremner RM, Rajasekaran AK (2014). Gramicidin A blocks tumor growth and angiogenesis through inhibition of hypoxia-iinducible factor in renal cell carcioma. Mol.Can Ther, 13(4); 1–12.

52. David JM and Rajasekaran AK (2015). Gramicidin A: A new mission for an old antibiotic.   Journal of Kidney Cancer and VHL, 2(1):15-24

Childhood leukemia:  The most common cancer in children is acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). While there is 85-90% cure rate of ALL most of the children suffer from treatment related devastating side-effects.  Dr. Rajasekaran’s group for the first time established nanoparticle based targeted drug delivery for childhood ALL. 

1.      Amin R, Bohnert A, Holmes L, Rajasekaran A, Assanasen C.  (2010).  Epidemiologic mapping of Florida childhood cancer clusters.  Pediatr Blood Cancer.  54: 511-518. (Cover Article)

2.      Krishnan V, Xu X, Barwe S, Yang X, Czymmek K, Waldman SA, Mason RW, Jia X, Rajasekaran AK (2013).  Dexamethasone-loaded block copolymer nanoparticles induce leukemia cell death and enhances therapeutic efficacy: a novel application in pediatric nanomedicine. Mol Pharm. 2013. 10:2199-210.

3.      Krishnan V, Xu X, Barwe S, Yang X, Jia X, Rajasekaran AK (2013).  Nanomedicine for childhood leukemia.  Polymer Prepr (American Chemical Society, Division of Polymer Chemistry), 53(2); 387-88.

4.      Krishnan V and Rajasekaran AK (2014). Clinical Nanomedicine: a solution to the chemotherpy conundrum in pediatric leukemia therapy. Clinical Pharmacol Ther. 95(2):168-78. Top three downloaded article.

5.      Rajasekaran AK and Krishnan V (2014). Nanomedicine to mitigate toxic side-effects of chemotherapy in children. Ann Materials Sci Eng, 1;1-2.

6.      Gilkey, JM, Krishnan, V, Scheetz L, Jia X, Rajasekaran AK, Dhurjati, PS (2015). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of fluorescently labeled block copolymer nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery in leukemia therapy. CPT: Pharmacometrics & System Pharmacology, 4, e13.

7.      Krishnan,      V,  Xu X, Kelly D, Snook A, Waldman SC, Mason RW, Jia X and Rajasekaran AK (2105). CD19            targeted          nanodelivery of doxorubicinenhances therapeutic       efficacy          in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.” Mol. Pharm. 12:2101-11.

Graduate and postdoctoral fellowship publications:
1.      Rajasekaran AK, Divakar S.  (1987). 31P-NMR study of Thermomyces lanuginosus.   Ind J Biochem Biophys.  24: 255-256.

2.      Rajasekaran AK, Divakar S. (1988).  Carbon 13-NMR spectroscopic study of a thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus.  Curr Sci  57: 235-237.

3.      Rajasekaran AK, Maheshwari R. (1990).  Effect of temperature on the lipid composition of Thermomyces lanuginosus.  Ind J Exp Biol  28: 134-138.

4.      Rajasekaran AK, Maheshwari R.(1990).  Growth kinetics and intra-cellular protein breakdown in mesophilic and thermophilic fungi.  Ind J Exp Biol  28: 46-51.

5.      Sen I, Rajasekaran AK.  (1991). Angiotensin II-binding protein in adult and neonatal rat heart.  J Mol Cell Cardiol.  23: 563-572.

6.      Rajasekaran AK, Maheshwari R.  (1993). Thermophilic fungi: an assessment of their potential for growth in soil.  J Biosci.  18: 345-354.

7.      Rajasekaran AK, Morimoto T, Hanzel DK, Rodriguez-Boulan E, Kreibich G.  (1993).  Structural reorganization of the rough endoplasmic reticulum without size expansion accounts for dexamethasone-induced secretory activity in AR42J cells.  J Cell Sci.105: 333-345 (Cover Article).

8.      Rajasekaran AK, Humphrey JS, Wagner M, Miesenbock G, Le Bivic A, Bonifacino JS, Rodriguez-Boulan E.  (1994). TGN38 recycles basolaterally in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.  Mol Biol Cell.  5: 1093-1103.

9.      Wagner M, Rajasekaran A, Hanzel DS, Mayor S, Rodriguez-Boulan E.  (1994).  Brefeldin A causes structural and functional alterations of the trans Golgi network of MDCK cells.  J Cell Science.  107: 933-943.

10.   Schwartz SB, Higgins PJ, Rajasekaran AK, Staiano-Coico L.  (1994).  Growth and differentiation of normal human keratinocytes in culture: Modulation of gelsolin expression.  J Burn Care Rehab.  15: 478-485.

11.   Rajasekaran AK, Zhou Z, Prakash K, Das G, Kreibich G.  (1995).  Functional characterization of the cis-regulatory elements of the rat ribophorin I gene.  Nucl Acids Res  23: 313-319.

12.   Monlauzeur L, Rajasekaran AK, Chao M, Rodriguez-Boulan E, Le Bivic A.  (1995). A cytoplasmic tyrosine is essential for the basolateral localization of mutants of the human nerve growth factor receptor in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.  J Biol Chem.  270: 12219-12225.

13.   Abe T, Arakawa Y, Rajasekaran AK, Yu T, Wada O.  (1995).  Interaction of atrial natriuretic peptide with its receptors in bovine lung membranes.  J Biol Chem  270: 7672-7678.

14.   Rajasekaran AK, Langhans-Rajasekaran SA, Gould RM, Rodriguez-Boulan E, Morimoto T. (1995).  A simple biochemical approach to quantitate rough endoplasmic reticulum.  Am J Physiol  268: C308-C316.

15.   Rajasekaran AK, Hojo M, Huima T, Rodriguez-Boulan E.  (1996). Catenins and zonula occludens-1 form a complex during early stages in the assembly of tight junctions.  J Cell Biol.  132: 451-463 (Cover Article).

16.   Mendes de Almeida JC, Rajasekaran AK, Godwin T, Quaroni A, Rodriguez-Boulan E, Altorki NK.  (1996). Barret's esophagus and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and cardia ubiquitously express sucrase-isomaltase and crypt cell antigen.  Dis Esophagus.  9: 191-197.

17.   Banerjee D, Rodriguez M, Rajasekaran AK.  (1997). Rapid movement of newly synthesized chicken apolipoprotein AI to trans-Golgi network and its secretion in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.  Exp Cell Res.  235: 334-344.